Acute Symptoms 9-year-old boy suffering hair loss, exposed 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, October 1945. An 11-year-old girl who was inside a wooden house in Funairi-machi in Hiroshima, about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) southwest from ground zero, at the time of the bombing. Bleeding from the gums. 21-year-old soldier was inside a wooden building of Army Unit 104, 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) northeast from ground zero, when the bombing occurred. Around the end of August, his gums started bleeding. Subcutaneous bleeding (dark spots) appeared on his face and upper body and turned into an extravasation of blood. On September 3rd, two hours after this photograph was taken, he died. Hundreds of thousands of people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survived the bombing but were poisoned by radiation. Their symptoms included bleeding from the gums, nose, or corners of the eyes; vomiting; hair loss; fatigue; and internal bleeding. These three photographs are from the film Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki shot by Nihon Eigasha, Ltd. in September 1945. 0 5 10 15 20 (%) Radiation dose (cGy) 100~199 200~299 300~399 400~499 500+ Frequency of abnormal cells A Stem Cell Fusion genes for leukemia Gamma and Neutron Rays Hypothesis: Organ stem cell hit theory Masato Tomonaga, M.D., PhD. Oslo, Norway, March 2013 An evidence: Chromosome aberrations in short-distance survivors (a) (b) 5’ A B C D F G X Y E A B C D F G X Y E White Cells Red Cells Chromosomal Abnormalities and Destruction of Genes Neutrons and gamma rays released by the atomic bombs directly destroyed body cells of the hibukasha (atomic bomb victims). Radiation also affected hematopoietic function, which caused acute radiation sickness and death to many victims. The cause of aftereffects of the atomic bomb radiation can be found in the destruction of DNA which forms chromosomes. When affected by bomb radiation, cell molecules would cause ionization and generate oxygen, which then would destroy gene information of the DNA. Many are restored, but unrestored stem cells, after an incubation period can start to proliferate abnormally and turn into cancer cells. This figure shows the frequency of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in hematopoietic stem cells in the peripheral blood (GM-CFC, BFU-E) among atomic bomb survivors exposed to a radiation dose of 100 cGy (1 centigray + 1 rad) or more. The proportion of cells with abnormal chromosomes among the stem cells investigated is shown by dose. There is a positive correlation between the proportion and dose. Amenomori et al, Exp. Hematol. 16, 19088. This figure shows the chromosomal abnormality in the hematopoietic stem cells in the peripheral blood (A) and abnormality in the peripheral T-lymphocyte (B) observed in a high-dose survivor, indicating that the radiation-induced damage involves the level of totipotent hematopoietic stem cells. Amenomori et al, Exp. Hematol. 16, 19088.