Seeking the Prohibition and Elimination of Nuclear Weapons The Stockholm Appeal of 1950 called for “the outlawing of nuclear weapons.” The Einstein-Russell Manifesto followed in 1955. Authored by Albert Einstein and British philosopher Bertrand Russell, it warned of the global risk created by nuclear weapons and appealed for peaceful resolution to international conflicts. These statements catalyzed subsequent movements in pursuit of world peace. Signature campaign for Stockholm Appeal, Toyosu, Tokyo, July 1951. Photograph courtesy of Rengo Tsushin. Albert Einstein Bertrand Russell reading from the manifesto that he coauthored with Albert Einstein, July 9, 1955. Photograph by Carl Sutton.